1.2: Types of Matrices

a) Row Matrix

A matrix which has just one and only one row in it is called a Row Matrix.

b) Column Matrix

A matrix which has just one and only one column in it is called a Column Matrix.

c) Square Matrix

A matrix number of rows and columns are equal is called a square matrix.

d) Rectangular Matrix

A matrix whose number of rows and columns are not equal is called rectangular matrix.

e) Zero matrix or Null Matrix

Any matrix (weather it is rectangular or square) of which all the elements (entries) are equal to zero is said to be a Zero matrix or Null matrix.

f) Diagonal matrix

A square matrix in which all elements are zero except the diagonal elements is known as diagonal matrix.

g) Scalar matrix

A square matrix in which all elements lying on the main diagonal of the matrix are equal and the remaining elements off the main diagonal are all zero is called scalar matrix.

h) Identity matrix

The identity matrix (sometimes called the unit matrix) is a square matrix and is denoted by I. It is characterized by the fact that all elements on its main diagonal are 1's whereas all other elements are zero.

i) Transpose of a matrix

Suppose we have a matrix A of any given order. The resultant matrix is obtained by interchanging mutually rows and columns in matrix A is called the transpose of A and is denoted by At.

j) Symmetric matrix

A square matrix A is said to be symmetric if the transpose of A denoted by At is again equal to A. i.e A=At.

k) Skew-Symmetric matrix

A given square matrix A is said to be skew-symmetric if At = -A.


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